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These articles review the Orthopedic Medicine approach with injections. This includes Prolotherapy where injections are done to stimulate the body’s healing response. Older injection approaches involved the use of dextrose, phenol, sodium morrhuate (cod liver oil extract). The latest approach (short of stem cells) involves injecting a patient’s own blood known as PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma). Learn more about PRP injections that have been used successfully by professional athletes and are now available for the general patient with chronic tendinitis or joint, back pain.


Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) has been used since the 1980’s for the treatment of neurological disorders (eye strabismus, blepharospasm, post-stroke spasticity, cerebral palsy foot spasticity, cervical dystonia (wry neck)) Learn about the research and emerging use for painful disorders. This includes injections into muscles (using a biomechanical approach) to help fibromyalgia. Injections in the skin can help neuropathic pain (such as shingles). Even joints can be injected to help with arthritis.


Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by widespread pain, poor sleep, fatigue and often mood, cognitive problems. It is a difficult condition to treat and requires the use of more than anti-inflammatories and Tylenol with codeine. Evidence-based medications are available including Health Canada approved Pregabalin (Lyrica) and Duloxetine (Cymbalta). There is some evidence for medications such as tramadol (Tramacet, Tridural, Ralivia, Zytram) and pharmaceutical cannabinoids (marijuana pill known as Nabilone (Cesamet) or spray Sativex). Non-drug therapies such as Exercise (aerobic and strengthening), Cognitive-behavioural therapy (education and self-empowerment) and a multidisciplinary team approach are also strongly supported in clinical trials.

There is emerging evidence for bio-identical hormone replacement therapies (subclinical hypothyroidism, menopause and even use of human growth hormone in proven adult deficiency syndromes following head trauma); we have recently documented success with testosterone replacement (such as Androgel) as helpful for chronic pain and fatigue (besides libido) particularly after long-term opioid use causing hypogonadism.


These articles by Dr. Ko and associates provide key pearls to help increase health, longevity and quality of life. The top 3 things you can take (based on strong scientific evidence) are emphasized in these papers. Read them to find out what they are! Learn also how to look younger safely and quickly.